Month: November 2016

What Does Medical Science Say About Fish Oil Supplements?

By Nathan Blake |11/23/16

A recent survey of over 11,000 consumers revealed that fish oil is currently the second most popular nutritional supplement on the American market today, with annual spending exceeding $1.2 billion for over-the-counter fish oil pills and related supplements.

Fish oil has long been touted for its supposedly positive effects on a variety of bodily functions including lowering blood pressure, triglycerides, and cholesterol levels; preventing heart disease; inhibiting the formation of cancer cells; combatting depression and mood disorders; reversing the effects of macular degeneration; and countless others.

But what does medical science have to say about these claims? Is fish oil the cure-all it’s advertised to be, or would consumers be better off spending their money elsewhere?

Fish Oil’s (Not So) Secret Ingredient

Fish oil capsules contain concentrated amounts of omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids. Omega-3 fatty acids are necessary for human health, playing a crucial role in brain health and the regulation of inflammatory responses. There are three main types of omega-3 fatty acids, two of which can be found in fish oil capsules.

Eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) is absorbed into the body by eating oily, coldwater fish like salmon, menhaden, sardines, mackerel, albacore tuna, halibut, and herring. EPA is also found in edible strains of seaweed as well as human breast milk.

Docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) is an important structural component of the human brain and is essential for its proper functioning. It also plays a primary role in maintaining the health of the eye, cerebral cortex, skin, sperm, and testicles. The human body can produce a small amount of DHA on its own, but like EPA, we get the majority of our DHA from cold-water ocean foods. DHA can also be found in organ meat, poultry, and egg yolks, though in small amounts.

Cardiovascular Health

The positive effects of fish oil on the human cardiovascular system have well been established, but that’s not to say no controversy exists. After evaluating the potential benefits of fish oil supplements for patients with multiple pre-existing cardiovascular disease factors, scientists concluded that DHA and EPA had neither a positive nor a negative effect on cardiovascular health. However, an early meta-analysis of fish oil studies revealed a possible correlation between fish oil supplementation and lower blood pressure. Further, scientific data indicates that fish oil consumption can reduce the risk of coronary heart disease, decrease mild hypertension, and prevent certain cardiac arrhythmias. Other studies show that fish oil capsules can be effective in the prevention of primary and secondary cardiovascular disease. In multiple clinical trials, fish oil supplements have been linked to the suppression of major coronary events. The most conclusive benefit of fish oil supplements seems to be that fish oil capsules are effective in lowering triglycerides in the blood. One study found that a prescription dose of EPA + DHA (2x the normal amount) lowered patients’ triglycerides by 27%.

Mood Disorders

Fish oil is not considered to be an effective replacement for mental health treatments, but when used in conjunction with other therapies, fish oil seems to provide beneficial effects to patients diagnosed with borderline personality disorder, unresponsive depression, and schizophrenia. EPA in particular has been studied for its possible use in regulating mood disorders, and researchers found that EPA-heavy omega-3 supplements appear to be effective against primary depression when used alongside prescription medications and other treatment. There is some evidence, however, that fish oil supplementation does not improve mood when tested against a placebo.

Alzheimer’s Disease

In a double-blind study spanning 26 weeks, researchers found that neither high nor low doses of fish oil had an observable effect on cognitive performance in patients age 65 and older. A much longer study, however, found that fish oil intake is associated with lower rates of Alzheimer’s disease. That being said, in a study of 174 Alzheimer’s patients, fish oil supplementation was not shown to reduce cognitive decline in patients with mild or moderate Alzheimer’s disease, though some positive effects were shown in a small group of patients with very mild Alzheimer’s. Other trials confirmed these finding that omega-3 supplementation is beneficial only for patients with mild cognitive impairment. While it’s still too early to make firm recommendations regarding the potential benefits of fish oil intake, daily DHA supplementation in excess of 180 mg is associated with a 50% decrease in dementia risk.

Eye Health

Regular consumption of EPA and DHA fatty acids significantly reduces the risk of developing age-related macular degeneration in women. Other findings suggest that increased omega-3 intake via fish oil capsules can prevent age-related macular degeneration in all subjects, sometimes by an estimated 22%. While the precise role of omega-3 fatty acids in eye health is unclear, there is some evidence that suggests DHA supplements can prevent cell damage and eye stroke injury in the retina.

Inflammation

A study of 250 patients with neck or back pain revealed that fish oil supplements are an equally effective but safer treatment for reducing arthritic pain compared to NSAIDs like ibuprofen and aspirin. Some studies suggest that EPA, independent from DHA, is a potential therapeutic treatment for arthritis-related inflammation in mice, and that EPA has a stronger anti-inflammatory effect than DHA. While another study’s findings suggest that fish oil supplements are not as effective in reducing chronic low-grade inflammation in obese men compared to weight reduction, multiple studies seem to suggest that omega-3 fatty acid supplements can decrease inflammation in patients, particularly those diagnosed with rheumatoid arthritis or ulcerative colitis.

Cancer

Some evidence points to the benefit of fish oil’s anti-inflammatory effects on reducing the overall number of cancer cells in the colon. Another investigation found that EPA + DHA are good candidates for primary and secondary breast cancer prevention due to their abilities to reduce inflammation. Strangely enough, one recent study has shown a correlation between elevated levels of omega-3 fatty acids and an increased risk for developing aggressive prostate cancer; men with the highest DHA levels were 2.5x more likely to develop high-risk prostate cancer, though similar studies proved inconclusive. Further, other studies revealed opposite findings, that fish oils are actually helpful in reducing the risk of prostate cancer in healthy individuals, as well as preventing colorectal and breast cancer formation.

The Last Word

Ultimately, the health benefits of fish oil supplements are still unclear. Studies surrounding omega-3 supplements, as we have seen, are conflicting at best, contradictory at worst. That being said, multiple organizations agree that the potential benefits of fish oil capsules outweigh the potential risks for generally healthy people, though more evidence is needed before making a definitive claim.

Continue taking fish oil capsules if they have been prescribed to you by a physician. If you are planning to begin a fish oil regimen, consult with your primary care physician beforehand to make sure you are healthy enough and that they will benefit you. General consumers should be aware that while many of the findings referenced above are interesting, it’s entirely possible you may not be receiving the benefits you’ve been paying for.

What Do You Know About Diabetes?

By Nathan Blake |11/9/16

November is designated National Diabetes Awareness Month.

In 2012, over 9% of the American population—roughly 29 million people—had some form of diabetes. Worse, one in four people with diabetes do not know they have the disease. With over 1.5 million new cases of diabetes being diagnosed every year, this disease is quickly becoming one of the nation’s fastest growing and most serious epidemics. In fact, diabetes was the seventh leading cause of death among Americans in 2010. That number, if current trends continue, is sure to rise.

What is Diabetes?

Diabetes is a group of health conditions that makes it difficult for the human body to properly control the level of sugar in the blood. When we eat, our bodies convert food into sugars, one of which is called glucose, which our cells rely on as a main source of energy to carry out the basic bodily functions of our muscles, brain, heart, liver, and more.

Because of the importance of glucose in everyday health, there are very intricate biological processes at play to regulate glucose in the blood. These processes ensure that our glucose level does not rise above or fall below a healthy range.

The Importance of Insulin

The cells in our body cannot use glucose directly and must rely on a hormone called insulin. After eating, insulin is released into the bloodstream by the pancreas. Insulin attaches to cells and prompts them to absorb glucose from the bloodstream. The cells then turn the glucose into energy.

When there is an overabundance of sugar in the blood—for instance, after a big meal—insulin stores this excess glucose in the liver to be used later when blood sugar levels drop, such as during the period between meals or while exercising. Normally, glucose is kept under tight control by the pancreas which uses insulin to regulate the blood levels. Diabetes occurs when this regulation system fails to control the levels of glucose.

Types of Diabetes

Type 1 diabetes (formerly called “juvenile-onset diabetes”) occurs when the body cannot create its own insulin. This is because the body’s immune system has destroyed the insulin–producing “beta cells” in the pancreas. Without insulin, glucose cannot enter cells. The cells must then use other inefficient sources of energy while glucose levels rise. This metabolic imbalance can be life–threatening. To prevent this problem, patients with Type 1 diabetes must receive insulin injections daily in order to regulate their blood sugar levels.

Type 2 diabetes (formerly called “adult-onset diabetes”) occurs when the body continues to create insulin but the cells have a sluggish response to its effects. The result of this “insulin resistance” is elevated levels of glucose in the bloodstream. Over time, the high glucose level can also affect the pancreas and reduce its production of insulin.

Gestational diabetes, occurring in roughly 4% of pregnancies, results from hormonal changes during pregnancy that inhibit insulin’s ability to regulate glucose levels.

Risk Factors

While the risk factors for developing type 1 diabetes are still being studied, research shows that having a family member with diabetes can increase your risk for developing the disease. Type 1 diabetes occurs most commonly in children and young adults, accounting for roughly 5% of all people diagnosed with diabetes.

More is known about what causes type 2 diabetes, as it is the disease’s most common form. Several risk factors include a family history of diabetes, being overweight, not getting enough regular physical activity, an unhealthy diet, high blood pressure, and increasing age.

Pregnant women at risk for developing gestational diabetes include those over the age of 25, people with a family history of diabetes, and women who are overweight. For reasons that are not fully understood, gestational diabetes occurs more frequently among black, Hispanic, Asian, and Native American populations.

Treatment

Many diabetics require treatment with insulin or other medications that help control glucose. Equally important are lifestyle habits that can be helpful in preventing diabetic complications. Diabetes can be managed by taking the following precautions:

• Eat meals balanced in starches, fruits and vegetables, proteins, and fats.

• Make physical activity a daily routine.

• Monitor blood sugar levels to be sure they are under control.

• Manage blood cholesterol and lipid levels by eating healthy and taking prescribed medications as recommended by a healthcare provider.

• Control blood pressure to a healthy range (below 130/80).

Prevention

Type 1 diabetes cannot be prevented, although many studies have shown that patients can take a few simple steps to drastically reduce their risk for developing type 2 diabetes.

The Diabetes Prevention Program was a federally-funded project that monitored over 3,000 individuals who were at risk for type 2 diabetes. Researchers discovered that adults at risk for the disease were able to reduce their susceptibility by half by following two practices: healthy eating and regular exercise.

Adhering to a low-calorie, low-fat diet and getting at least 30 minutes of physical activity for five days a week were shown to be effective markers for lowering the risk for diabetes.

To learn more about diabetes diagnosis, treatment, and prevention, visit the National Institute of Diabetes and Digestive and Kidney Diseases, supported in part by the National Institutes of Health.

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